Empowering Patients: A Comprehensive Guide to 5 Major Legislation Rules Regarding Patients' Access to Data in the US

In recent years, the United States has witnessed significant advancements in healthcare legislation aimed at empowering patients and granting them greater control over their health data. The importance of access to personal health information cannot be overstated, as it enables patients to make informed decisions, manage their healthcare effectively, and engage more actively in their treatment plans.

In this blog post, we will delve into the major legislation rules concerning patients' access to data in the US, highlighting key provisions that put patients at the forefront of their healthcare journey.


1. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)

The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, commonly known as HIPAA, stands as one of the cornerstones of patient privacy and data protection. Enacted in 1996, HIPAA sets forth strict guidelines for safeguarding sensitive patient health information. The act grants patients the right to access their own health records held by covered entities, which include healthcare providers, health plans, and healthcare clearinghouses. Patients can request access to their data in electronic or paper format, giving them better insight into their medical history, diagnoses, treatments, and more.

2. Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (HITECH Act)

The HITECH Act was passed in 2009 as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, with the primary goal of promoting the widespread adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) among healthcare providers. In addition to improving the security and privacy of electronic health information, the HITECH Act reinforces patients' right to access their health data. It also requires healthcare providers to demonstrate "meaningful use" of EHRs, which involves enabling patients to access their electronic health information through secure patient portals.

3. 21st Century Cures Act

In 2016, the 21st Century Cures Act was signed into law, ushering in a new era of patient-centered healthcare. Among its numerous provisions, the act emphasizes the importance of interoperability and data exchange. It requires healthcare providers to implement open and standardized application programming interfaces (APIs) to facilitate patients' access to their health information. The act also addresses information blocking practices, ensuring that patients can access their data without unnecessary hindrances.

4. Information Blocking Rule

Implemented by the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC), the Information Blocking Rule took effect in April 2021. This rule addresses the practice of information blocking, where certain entities intentionally prevent or delay the sharing of electronic health information. By discouraging such practices, the rule ensures that patients can readily access their health data when needed, fostering transparency and trust in the healthcare system.


TEFCA stands for the Trusted Exchange Framework and Common Agreement. It is an initiative of the U.S. Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC) aimed at promoting interoperability and the seamless exchange of electronic health information across different health information networks in the United States.

The TEFCA was established as part of the 21st Century Cures Act, which was signed into law in 2016. The primary goal of TEFCA is to create a nationwide health information exchange infrastructure that enables secure and standardized sharing of health data among healthcare providers, payers, and patients, while maintaining patient privacy and data security.

Key components of the Trusted Exchange Framework and Common Agreement include:

Trusted Exchange Framework:

This framework outlines the principles, policies, technical standards, and practices necessary to achieve interoperability among different health information networks. It defines the roles and responsibilities of the entities participating in the exchange.

Common Agreement:

The Common Agreement establishes the rules and requirements that organizations must follow when sharing health information. It includes provisions to address patient privacy, security, data exchange, and other critical aspects of interoperability.

Qualified Health Information Networks (QHINs):

Under TEFCA, health information networks can voluntarily become Qualified Health Information Networks (QHINs) by meeting specific criteria and adhering to the Trusted Exchange Framework and Common Agreement. QHINs act as intermediaries, facilitating secure data exchange between participating entities.

Support for Patient Access:

TEFCA emphasizes the importance of patient access to their health information. It encourages QHINs and other participating organizations to enable patients to access and control their health data through secure and user-friendly mechanisms.

Enforcement and Oversight:

The ONC oversees the implementation of TEFCA and ensures that participating entities comply with the requirements of the Trusted Exchange Framework and Common Agreement. This oversight helps maintain the integrity, security, and privacy of health information exchanged across networks.

TEFCA is crucial for advancing the interoperability of health information technology systems in the United States. By establishing a standardized and secure approach to health data exchange, TEFCA aims to improve care coordination, enhance patient outcomes, and support various healthcare initiatives. It also lays the groundwork for the efficient and effective use of health data for research, public health efforts, and quality improvement across the healthcare industry.


The United States has made significant strides in ensuring patients' access to their health data through comprehensive healthcare legislation. The laws discussed in this blog post, including HIPAA, the HITECH Act, the 21st Century Cures Act, TEFCA and the Information Blocking Rule, all contribute to empowering patients and encouraging active involvement in their healthcare decisions.

By providing patients with easy and secure access to their health information, these legislative measures not only enhance patient engagement but also contribute to improved health outcomes. As technology and healthcare continue to evolve, it is crucial to remain vigilant in advocating for patients' rights to access and control their health data, fostering a healthcare system that truly prioritizes patient empowerment and well-being.

About the author - Andra Bria

Andra Bria is a marketing manager at Medicai. She is interested in health equity, patient experience and value-driven care pathways. She believes in interoperability and collaboration for a more connected healthcare industry.